1.1 Background to the Study
Production is a process or procedure developed to transform a set of inputs like men, materials, capital, information and energy into a specified set of output like finished products and services in proper quantity and quality, thus achieving the objectives of an enterprise’ (Vollman et al, 2007; and Jain and Aggarwal, 2008). The production system likewise is the design process by which elements are transformed into useful products. A process then is an organized procedure for accomplishing the conversion of inputs into output. Production is effective if an appropriate and efficient PP technique is in place. Quality has been an important part of human activities since the emergence of human history. Before now, manufacturing was essentially conducted by the cottage industry and heavily relied on craftsmen. The manufacturers were merely in seller’s market; however, the trend has changed from seller’s market to the buyer’s market. The consumers have become more aware of the variety of products in the market. Thus, customers are the focus of manufacturing such that every organization has to study what customers needs are and satisfy them in order to remain in business by offering products of desired quality. Although several reasons have been accountable for substandard products in manufacturing sector, Arora (2009) notes that quality of goods is determined by customers. Customers become a key factor that can create competition among organizations and this make firms to focus more on quality. This is due to effective quality which determines the rate of productivity and thus becomes an important factor in organization and also contributes to the growth of the economy. The usage of poor basic materials for production process has given way to the existence of sub-standard products in the Nigeria industry, making the product not to measure up to the standard of specification as expected. This has resulted in productivity of organizations dropping because of customers’ inability to buy such bad products. Where the company fails to measure up and the products identified, such products are usually confiscated or destroyed and such company may be closed-down by the regulatory agencies pending when issues are resolved. So, instead of the companies making profit, huge amount of loss is incurred as a result. Some producers produce sub-standard varieties of products, different from the ones they presented for certification to regulatory agencies. Demirbag (2006) notes that quality control and improvement is one of the most important factors in every organization. Successful enterprises understand the dominant influence customer-defined quality can have on business.
Hence many competitive companies constantly enhance their quality standard by introducing total quality control departments in their organizations whose policies are aimed at satisfying customers by giving them standard quality products, excellent services and timely delivery. They go further to explain the need for organizational development by training staff for such responsibilities. Taking a historical perspective, organizations who are highly committed to the implementation of quality control usually maintain quality standard in production which in turn provides a direction to the business. Production and operations management goes well beyond manufacturing operations - involving the assembly of products, the operation of banks, transportation companies, hospitals and clinics, school systems, insurance companies, and high-level technology from any system that generates tangible products (for instance a ford automobile) or intangible services (for example a flight on Nigeria Airlines, advice on computer programming) part of the domain of production and operations management (Gibson, 1998).
Production and operation management is a specific function that affects the behaviour and performance of other major functions like marketing and accounting. The interrelationships of these three main functions of any organization can be better understood by thinking of an organization as a system. The marketing subsystem deals primarily with the demand side of business, the accounting subsystem addresses the control side of business the production and operation management subsystem centers around converting inputs into outputs or the supply side of business. No matter how great the demand is for a product or service, there must be a supply available. Producing enough goods and services to meet demand is the primary task of organizations, according to the production and operation management viewpoint.Production management techniques are tools used in improving an organization’s goods or services required by the customer. Production management techniques are the processes of determining what should be produced and how it should be realized. Appleby (1976) notes that defects are too high and companies should put programmes in place that will move them continuously towards the goal of zero defects. Generally, the main idea behind effective quality is that poor quality is erroneous. The costs of poor quality should include all the costs of not doing the job right at the first time, scrap rework, loss of hours/labour, machine, sales, warranty and hidden customer ill will. Waller (1999) strongly believes that, the cost of poor quality is to understand that unlimited amount can be profitably spent on improving quality.
Operations management will continue to progress based on contributions from several other disciplines. The analytical methodologies applied to total quality management (TQM) were initially established by Frederick Taylor to yield what he called scientific management. These have evolved into a field of industrial engineering and management science and these disciplines have contributed substantially to greater productivity. They bring together diverse disciplines such as mathematics, statistics, management and economics to make possible systematic analysis and improvement of operating systems as well as such tools as linear programming, queuing theory simulation, and statistical analysis. Applications from the biological and physical sciences also have contributed to quality control in a variety of ways. Among all organisational outputs, innovation in production and resource control is fundamental not only in view of its direct impact on the viability of firms but also because of its profound effects on quality service delivery (Robin and Courter, 2008). while manufacturers had hitherto focused on new product development as a means of growth, it is argued that a more structured mechanism for managing the process of product quality as value added to profitability. The modern industry must develop a way to coordinate and manage the flow of information and ideas on product planning and quality, between the various functions in the industry if it is to tap from the ‘pool of knowledge’ to survive competition. This underscores the importance of planning (evolving and developing) products and production effectively in the industry. In this connection, they (Robin and Courter, 2008) assert that production planning and product quality control are process that companies are going to have to manage, rather than something that magically happens. Companies need to establish a seamless innovation process as such minimizing defective products in production planning and product quality control required to create, market, and service breakthrough products are available and assessable to those who need them.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Production planning like any other managerial activity is not always easy and smooth. A number of factors seem to impede effective production planning and product quality control, one of them is the problem of rapid change, for example, dynamic and complex environmental, technological, political, social and economic changes that has continually affected a given production plans and product control. Although all businesses are subject to some change, the degree of instability and complexity caused by social dynamic varies considerably from industry to industry and business environment. However, rapid change in the social dynamics remains a major challenge in production planning and product quality control. Despite the pervasiveness of production planning and product quality control, some managers resist change resulting from it for the following reasons; a preference for familiar goals and plans, fear of the unknown, economic insecurity, prolonged negotiation with labour union(s), government control and regulations, scarcity of raw materials and shortage of managerial and technical talents. It should also be noted that good production planning and product quality control is both time- consuming and expensive as reasonable amount of time and effort are usually devoted to forecasting and evaluation expected result and performance.
Specifically, production planning and product quality control in Federal University Bakery Wukari Taraba State has been adversely affected in declining capacity utilization, customer reduction, profit drop, and capital depreciation. Adequate production planning and product quality control practices are important for any organization’s survival in the dynamic world of change (global competition). Every activity in our daily lives involves the use of products and services, which are developed and marketed, by individuals and variety of organizations for public consumption. The Nigerian consumers clearly lives at the mercy of dishonest or irresponsible business interests and they have become exposed to poor quality products and services provided by some manufacturers in the country (Igbadi, 2011). Often, customers use products and services without serious concern about some in-built “hidden-killers”, which could be threatening to health, safety, and life. The manufacturers in Nigeria have made many consumers to regularly buy cheaper products that are not up to standard and without warranty. Also most consumers have little or no knowledge of labels or how to access information on safety, quality and in some cases, quantity of products. Umenyi (2007) posits that imperfections in the market not only lead to misleading information through deceptive advertisements, but also encourages proliferation of fake and sub-standard goods.
These realities are detrimental to consumers and put the seller in the vantage position of exploiting the buying party in the exchange process (Monye, 2005). Product-harm crisis is a reality that organizations must confront. Any poorly managed marketing crisis can easily annihilate the affected brand’s equity, which might have been nurtured over many years (Zhao et al., 2011). Product defects can have devastating (negative) effects on the affected brand’s image, market share, other brands from the same company, and future sales.
1.3 Research Questions
Does the application of inspection technique have effect on production control?
What is the extent of the effect of quality control technique on product designing?
How can minimizing the defective product through product planning and quality be achieved?
1.4 Objective of the Study
To examine the effects of inspection technique on production
To ascertain if there is a relationship between quality control technique on product designing
How can minimizing the defective product through product planning and quality control be achieved?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: inspection technique has no significant positive effect on production control
Ho: there is no significant positive relationship between quality control technique and product designing.
Ho: there is no positive effect minimizing defective product through product planning and quality control
1.6 Significance Of The Study
This research work will be of immense importance because it reveals whether the key to moving Nigeria companies into solving the problem of minimizing defective product through product planning and quality control lies in enhancing company policy decision. It is also expected that the findings of the study would provoke further researches into the subject thereby building a strong literature on the subject matter.
This study will be of great importance to the students and other researchers since it will serve as a reference point for future studies.
Finally, this study will be of great importance to the general public as it will help the policy makers to formulate measures in solving the problem of defective product in the country as it enhances economic growth substantially.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study aims at minimizing defective product through product planning and quality control. Data and information for this study shall be sourced from Federal University Bakery Wukari, Taraba State between 2015-2017. The study covered Senior Managers, Officers and Supervisors/Others management staff in different departments with different educational background.
1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms
The following terminology in this study means;
Input: – This is used to measure the effect of an idea, concept, event and programme on the existence of an entity (Ama, 2001:387).
Defective products: this entails products with poor quality
Product Planning: This means sourcing raw materials, processing and producing finished goods that satisfies wants and needs of consumer (Aminu and Olayinka, 2006).
TQM: - This means total quality management and it is a concept used to improve on service delivery of an organization to its customer (Coulter and Robbins , 1998:501).
Competence: – This term is used to describe the knowledge, skills and behaviours needed for effective job performance (Onuoha, 198:17).
Stakeholders: - These are the owners of organizations by virtue of their resource commitment to the running of such organizations (Olowe 1998:433).
Productivity: - These involve input/output relationship in the production of goods and services aimed at maximizing profits (Coulter and Robbins, 1998:582).
Effectiveness: – This is the ability to determine and achieve the organizational objective (Onuoha, 1998:19).