Mar 16, 2019 | 12:38 am | 6
1.1 Background of Study
Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers (Bratic & Schirch, 2007, p.136). Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviors driven by addiction or habit. Over the past few decades, media have been used for campaigns in an attempt to affect various behaviors in mass populations (Kotler & Lee, 2008, p.54). Such campaigns have most notably been aimed at tobacco use and heart-disease prevention, but have also addressed alcohol and illicit drug use, cancer screening and prevention, sex-related behaviors, child survival, and many other health-related issues.
Typical campaigns have placed messages in media that reach large audiences, most frequently via television or radio, but also outdoor media, such as billboards and posters, and print media, such as magazines and newspaper. Exposure to such messages is generally passive, resulting from an incidental effect of routine use of media (Kotler et al 2008, p.54). Media campaigns can be of short duration or may extend over long periods. They may stand alone or be linked to other organized programme components, such as clinical or institutional outreach and easy access to newly available or existing products or services, or may complement policy changes. The great promise of mass media campaigns lies in their ability to disseminate well defined behaviorally focused messages to large audiences repeatedly, over time, in an incidental manner, and at a low cost per head (Hornik & Yanovitzky 2003, p.20). However, that promise has been inconsistently realized: campaign messages can fall short and even backfire; exposure of audiences to the message might not meet expectations, hindered by inadequate funding, the increasingly fractured and cluttered media environment, use of inappropriate or poorly researched format (eg, boring factual messages or age-inappropriate content), or a combination of these features; homogeneous messages might not be persuasive to heterogeneous audiences; and campaigns might address behaviors that audiences lack the resources to change (Fishbein & Azjen 2010, p11).
Among the wide diversity of media, television have outstanding position because of the informal teaching purposes they potentially retain (Tankard & Severin 2000, p76). It has always been believed that educational television can aid transmission of information and help reinforcement, learning and application of particular skills assisting learning procedure. Television should be able to promote public culture (the fight against corruption) and highlight issues such as, public health, traffic, social relations etc. and require producing films on these issues for more appropriate changes in the society (Mohsenian & Malekzaden 1997, p123). In recent decades, the application of mass media resulted in heightening the level of education and caused more efficiency in educational system. The spread and development of television in three decades after the Second World War paved a new ground of modern communication. It seems that ubiquity of television is due to the convenience and accessibility of it in addressing all people and teaching them through easiest method, as people are more inclined to learn something through the easiest way possible (Buren 2000, p81). Media influence peoples behavior towards different political issues (Tankard et al, 2000, p76). The role of media is so important in every nations race for development. The media in Pakistan for example is getting more powerful than ever and currently, electronic media is the only informative source which is reachable to everyone. I.e. Smart phones, Tablets, Ipod, laptops, LED, used by peoples to get political awareness. Electronic media changes the ways of thinking of the people. Media personnels analyzes the current political scenario and shape the agenda for their programes reflecting the views of the public. (Combs,2006, p.65). Media offers a lot of information on issues. In local American television news, stories on health, campaigns on public interest events were among the most common areas of coverage.
In 1998, American television showed 17 commercials at every hour containing several messages and especially campaign on health matters, ensuring the information circulate to the larger audience (Bratic et al 2007, p137). Media are appropriate sources of information for enhancing knowledge on every event or issues. Relationships have been found between private and public sectors and the media in the nation. Information shared on television can be seen as drama and peoples knowledge about the topic, as well as between an educational television programme and the level of nutritional knowledge is enhanced (Barnes, (2002, p 23). For example, television campaigns and information series broadcast as part of the evening news and an information booklet were used to try to make American women with little information thinking about quitting smoking (Buckingham, 2008, p98). Television monitoring of government performance and airing her activities is major towards nation building and provides us better understanding of social and political issues. In a nutshell, electronic media promoting government activities and creating awareness of happenings among the public is for them to respond and contribute their responsibility to the countrys development. (Madhavi, 2007, p203). The fore going shows how important television is among the other mass medium in the delivery of its programming. It has been found, furthermore, that a soap opera on television was effective in persuading people to take bone-marrow tests, in order to find suitable bone-marrow donors for people suffering from leukemia (Walle, Cornel & Jong-Vanhttps://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=jas.2009.2619.2624 - 142226_ja 2002, p56). This portrays that television can be used to preach the gospel of change that will bring about positive development in the country.
In September 2016, Nigerias President, Mohammadu Buhari begins a campaign Change Begins with Me a move set to identify the cankerworms eating the nations economy, fishing out the corrupt individuals, and bringing to afore the desired change and in the process repositioning the nation and putting it back to where it rightly belong positively. Since the media is saddled with the responsibility to disseminate information to the large audience means it has a role to play in ensuring this campaign goes round to citizenry (Asgharnia, 2002, p12).
It is important to say the rationale/reason behind this campaign is to primarily instruct the citizenry on the ethical norms and values needed for societal change and also bring about changes capable of transforming individuals and by extension bring about national development. In order for this campaign to achieve its goals, the media must play key role in ensuring the mass audience across the country get the awareness that will hitherto provoke action/response.
Upon this background this study tends to investigate awareness and response of Kogi state university students to president Baharis change begins with me campaign on television.
1.2 Statement of Problem
In recent years, the importance of a free, professional and plural media in contributing to good governance has become order of the day in the international development community. A vibrant media gives people free flowing access to information, enables dialogue, encourages people to express their views, prompts greater political participation and encourages accountability. This simply connotes that for citizenry to be informed of government activities the media must play a major role, any government who will want to achieve great things and good governance such must also give media a place. In modern day governance globally, the issue of Good Governance has assumed the front burner as an indispensable requirement for social, economic and political developments (Ifeoma 2013, p. 26) yet better governance continues to be a source of worry and a big challenge to most countries including Nigeria.
This, the Nigeria government see and believed there is a need for a change in re-orienting the citizenry in a way to bring about social change through a campaign called the Change Begins With Me. Interestingly, in a bid to ensure good governance in the country, on the 8th of September, 2016, the Change Begins With Me campaign was launched in Abuja, the initiative is aimed at educating and enlightening Nigerians to appreciate the values of accountability and integrity by all. The push for national re-branding enters a country when there are numerous assumed un-ethical societal behaviors amongst the citizenry.
There was the historic failure of governance, lack of genuine patriotism, corruption in all places, insecurity in the Nigerian State; the government deemed it fit to initiate a platform that will combat this menace and that is the Change Begins With Me campaign. This campaign is meant for the public and essence is to see that people begin to do things the right way and at the right time which will help the government and therefore facilitate the much talked about new Nigeria. For the campaign to be effective in the real sense the citizens must first have an awareness of the campaign that should trigger response from them. Against this backdrop the study seek to find out the awareness and response of Kogi state University students to president Baharis change begins with me campaign on television.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Objectives are as helpful in research as they are in most areas of life. According to Etim, (2004, p19), research objectives gives the researcher a beautiful sense of target and direction. The broad goal of the research is the awareness and response of Kogi State University (KSU) students to president Baharis change begins with me campaign. However, the research was geared towards the achievement of these specific objectives.
To determine if KSU students are aware of the change begins with me campaign
To ascertain the level of awareness of the change begins with me campaign among undergraduate students of Kogi state university
To find out KSU students response to the change begins with me campaign
To determine the influence of the change begins with me campaign on KSU students.
1.4 Research Question
In scientific inquiry, research questions give order and direction to a study. Hence, (Etim, 2004, p19) averred that research questions should indeed be an expansion of research problem. In line with the objectives of the study, the following questions were raised.
Do you have awareness of the change begins with me campaign?
What is the level of awareness of the change begins with me campaign among undergraduate students of Kogi state university?
What is your response to the change begins with me campaign?
What are the influences of the change begins with me campaign on you?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The need to significantly contribute to body of knowledge in this area inspired the researcher to embark on this study. Thus, this study shall be building block for other similar studies in this area of knowledge. This study will provide empirical evidence and investigate the awareness and response of KSU students to president Buhari's change begins with me campaign. The study will further inspire students eagerness to information thereby exposes them to government activities and giving them access to also contribute.
The findings of this study will serve as a reference document for mass media practitioners on how best to use media platforms for either campaigns, promotion or advert of different agencies such as corporate firms, individuals or even the government with a view to building a peaceful, religious, tolerance, prosperous and egalitarian society. The study will also benefit the society at large in that they will have a new orientation via this study on how best to get acquainted to media messages especially when it has to do with the government of the day. Also, institutions of higher learning (Universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of Education, etc) shall find this work very helpful in the teaching and learning of and media studies and responses.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research topic is on the awareness and response of KSU students to president Buhari's change begins with me campaign. From the above topic, this work will be limited to the undergraduate students in Kogi State University (KSU) Anyigba. The simple random sampling method will be adopted in the study to select the students to be studied as every student of the institution has an equal chance of selection.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Awareness: ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or be cognizant
Response: a reaction to something
Campaign: is a planned set of activities that people carry out over a period of time in order to achieve something such as social or political change
Television: is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in black and white or colored.
Change begins with me: this is a project /campaign instituted by president Buhari in a bid to reposition Nigeria and to reduce the rate of corruption. He called the crusade Change Begins With Me.